Humanmade Device – MS Factory http://ms-factory.biz/ Wed, 12 Jan 2022 11:07:11 +0000 en-US hourly 1 https://wordpress.org/?v=5.8 https://ms-factory.biz/wp-content/uploads/2021/06/icon-10-150x150.png Humanmade Device – MS Factory http://ms-factory.biz/ 32 32 LBL coastal cleaning Saturday, January 15, 2022 https://ms-factory.biz/lbl-coastal-cleaning-saturday-january-15-2022/ Tue, 11 Jan 2022 21:53:02 +0000 https://ms-factory.biz/lbl-coastal-cleaning-saturday-january-15-2022/ Debris from homes destroyed in the December 10, 2021 tornado, photo above, has accumulated on the shores of Kentucky Lake in the LBL. Volunteers are called in to help with the cleanup this Saturday, January 15, 2022. – Photo contributed by John Tillson. The lakeshore of the Land Between the Lakes (LBL) is inundated with […]]]>

Debris from homes destroyed in the December 10, 2021 tornado, photo above, has accumulated on the shores of Kentucky Lake in the LBL. Volunteers are called in to help with the cleanup this Saturday, January 15, 2022. – Photo contributed by John Tillson.

The lakeshore of the Land Between the Lakes (LBL) is inundated with piles of rubble from the tornado on December 10, 2021. The rubble of literally hundreds of lakeside homes and other structures has been driven onto the LBL shores of Kentucky Lake.

A voluntary bank cleaning has been scheduled for this weekend, Saturday, January 15, 2022. The meeting point for cleaning is the Twin Lakes hinterland and the boat ramp in the LBL. The clean-up starts at 9 a.m. and lasts until 12 p.m. Anyone interested in volunteering for the purge has been asked to email their information to Volunteer@friendsoflbl.org.

According to the clean-up organizers, their goal is to remove as much man-made material from the coast as possible. There are many components of docks, including flotation devices, that lie along the shoreline. The dock floats are of particular importance because they contain foam beads that do not disintegrate as easily and stay in the environment for a very long time if they exit the floats.

The piles of debris on the banks and along the coast contain all kinds of man-made objects, many of which pose hazards. The LBL washes broken building materials, plastic household items, plastic containers, loose foam, and more on the shores of Kentucky Lake.

Man-made items, like the dock floats in the photo above, are due to be cleaned up on Saturday. The floats contain foam beads that will not break. – Photo contributed by John Tillson.

The voluntary work at the LBL is so far the only announced clean-up work at the LBL. One of the organizers of the action, John Tillson, has already cleaned up the weekends along the coast at LBL on the weekends since the tornado. This Saturday, the first major effort is to attract a large number of people to help clear up the rubble.

Anyone helping to clean up should bring drinking water, closed shoes, personal work gloves, and dress appropriately for the cold, windy weather.

If rain or bad weather interferes with the clean-up, it will be postponed to January 22, 2022 in the same place and time.

According to John Tillson, an organizer of the purge, people can do this themselves. He said, “First of all, most of the coastal litter is from the Twin Lakes campground to the canal. Hikers should be warned that there are a lot of pointed objects, especially in the pieces of wood on the bank.

Here are the main access points to this section.

  • Twin Lakes Campground – First right after North Welcome Station.
  • Twin Lakes “boat ramp” – There is a gravel road to the left and up a large hill just before the campsite. Take your right hand on the other side of this hill.
  • Canal tour (at the bottom of the hill where the road is closest to the canal – park in the gravel parking lot where mountain bikers park.)
  • Canal-scenic drive as it moves away from the shore. There is a new pedestrian bridge and a pedestrian crossing sign. “

Tillson said, “Here is my promise to people who want some fresh air and do something good with their families. I would be happy if someone would contact me if they want to help with the tidying up. I will take my boat to the shore a few times a week and remove the bagged trash if they follow these simple guidelines.

Hikers can throw rubbish into garbage bags while walking (no wood, just plastic and other man-made materials).

When the bags get too full to be relatively easy to carry, they need to be closed and placed quite high on the beach (the lake level rises).

I’ll come over and pick them up with my boat and make sure that the material arrives at a garbage transfer station. I’ve already cleaned containers of marine pollutants from the Moosbach to the canal, although they may be more buried in some fairly large piles of wood.

Heavy duty. Plastic bags are available from the Benton Recreation Center (currently the old library, which will soon be moving to the old Benton gym). If they use colored bags, we can recognize them more easily and bring them back. “

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Cyber ​​criminals will take advantage of the dependency on mobile devices https://ms-factory.biz/cyber-%e2%80%8b%e2%80%8bcriminals-will-take-advantage-of-the-dependency-on-mobile-devices/ Sun, 09 Jan 2022 05:40:00 +0000 https://ms-factory.biz/cyber-%e2%80%8b%e2%80%8bcriminals-will-take-advantage-of-the-dependency-on-mobile-devices/ Gil Shwed, CEO of Check Point Software Technologies, is the inventor of the modern firewall and is the author of several patents, such as Check Point’s stateful inspection technology (dynamic filtering that monitors active connections to decide which packets are passing through the Firewall). He has received numerous awards including the Israel Prize (the country’s […]]]>

Gil Shwed, CEO of Check Point Software Technologies, is the inventor of the modern firewall and is the author of several patents, such as Check Point’s stateful inspection technology (dynamic filtering that monitors active connections to decide which packets are passing through the Firewall). He has received numerous awards including the Israel Prize (the country’s highest cultural distinction), honorary doctorates from the Technion – Israel Institute of Technology and Tel Aviv University, and the Global Leader for Tomorrow Award from the World Economic Forum. In an interaction with THE WEEK, Shwed shares insights into the latest trends in cybersecurity. Excerpts:

Covid-19 led to a steady increase in the number of cyber attacks. What new types of attacks have you observed?

In 2021, one in 61 organizations worldwide was affected by ransomware every week. We believe threat actors will continue to target companies that can afford to pay ransom. In May 2021, a US insurance giant paid a $ 40 million ransom to hackers. This was a record, and we can expect the ransom demanded by attackers to increase in 2022. Ransomware attacks are becoming more sophisticated. Hackers will increasingly use penetration tools to customize attacks in real time and live and work on victim networks.

In the future, cyber attacks will target mobile devices as mobile wallets and mobile payment platforms are used more frequently.

We have also observed that critical infrastructure has also become a major target for cyberattacks; this includes water, electricity and freight by sea, land and air. These attacks have a huge impact not only on businesses, but also on communities, cities, states, and entire countries. The consequences can be dire. In 2020, both a U.S. natural gas pipeline and the operation of an Australian steel company closed until the attack was contained. In 2021 we saw the attack on the Colonial Pipeline in the United States.

Additionally, we also observed that cloud adoption was a step ahead of security as companies’ digital transformation programs moved forward by more than five years due to the pandemic. While many organizations have moved to the cloud, public cloud security is still a major concern for 75 percent of organizations. In addition, over 80 percent of the companies found that their existing security tools in the cloud did not work at all or only to a limited extent, which shows that the challenges of cloud security remain in the foreground.

Going forward, cyber attackers will target mobile devices as mobile wallets and mobile payment platforms become more common. Cyber ​​criminals will continue to develop and adapt their techniques to take advantage of growing reliance on mobile devices.

What new cybersecurity threats are emerging in today’s world and what mechanisms are evolving to counter these threats?

We live in an era of Gen V attacks, which are usually large-scale and can cause a lot of damage. Unfortunately, most companies use Gen III solutions to protect themselves from Gen V attacks. Organizations should ensure that they have the appropriate solutions in place to prevent attacks without disrupting the normal flow of business; Most of these attacks include the most advanced. To stay ahead of threats, organizations need to be proactive and not leave any part of their attack surface unprotected or unattended or they run the risk of becoming the next victim of sophisticated, targeted attacks.

Recently, we have also observed some key trends in 2022. We believe that cyber attacks on the supply chain will continue to increase and become more common, and governments will begin to enact regulations to combat these attacks, including protecting networks, and working with the private sector and other countries to identify and identify more threat groups around the world to address specifically. We have also seen that data breaches are more common and that organizations and governments are costing more to recover. In May 2021, a US insurance giant paid a $ 40 million ransom to hackers. This was a record, and we can expect the ransom demanded by attackers to increase in 2022.

In addition, cyber attackers will target mobile devices as mobile wallets and mobile payment platforms become more common. Cyber ​​criminals will continue to develop and adapt their techniques to take advantage of growing reliance on mobile devices.

What Precautions Should Companies Take To Prevent New Age Cyber ​​Attacks?

I think organizations should focus on issues like real-time prevention because vaccinations are better than treatments, even when it comes to cybersecurity. Real-time prevention of threats before they can infiltrate the network is key to preventing future attacks. In addition, in order to secure everything as the new normal, companies need to rethink and review the level of security and relevance of their network infrastructures, processes, conformity of connected mobile and PC devices, IoT (Internet of Things), etc. The increasing use of cloud computing means an increased level of security, especially for technologies that secure workloads, containers and serverless applications in multi and hybrid cloud environments. Many changes in the company’s infrastructure provide a unique opportunity to review security investments. The highest transparency achieved through consolidation guarantees the best effectiveness.

What role do ethical hackers play in dealing with cyber attacks?

Ethical hackers play an important role as you need to think like a hacker to develop the best threat prevention. Companies work with them to uncover potential security vulnerabilities that malicious hackers could exploit.

What innovations are there in the field of cybersecurity?

AI and machine learning are among the innovations in cybersecurity as most solutions are based on one or more detection engines based on man-made logic such as signatures or rule-based analysis. However, the speed of malware evolution, the increasing number of devices and technologies, and the vast amounts of data make it impossible to keep man-made models comprehensive and up-to-date. If you rely solely on traditional engines, businesses are exposed to the most damaging attacks.

How do you see cybersecurity evolving?

Today we are in the age of Gen V attacks – bigger and more complex. Many companies are still trying to protect themselves with legacy technology that can only protect them from Gen III attacks. This leaves a loophole that cyber criminals can easily exploit.

Cyber ​​security is an ongoing battle between good and evil. Just as cybersecurity companies continue to focus on helping companies strengthen their defenses with the latest innovations, cybercriminals are improving their game and adopting new strategies and technologies.

What can governments do to protect their systems from hackers and other cyber security breaches?

All organizations, both public and private, are now exposed to the threat of Gen V attacks, which can wreak havoc. It is important to evaluate your environment and identify the security gaps in your company. The threat landscape will continue to refine, and companies should consider using consolidated security solutions rather than stand-alone solutions as this would be more difficult to manage. Additionally, traditional security tools are no longer sufficient to deal with the growing number of security breaches and the dynamic, virtual, and decentralized nature of the cloud. To meet these challenges, a unified, highly automated and cost-effective cloud security solution is required that can detect and deal with threats in cloud environments.

What research and development work does Check Point do in the area of ​​cyber security, especially in the area of ​​firewall security?

We strive to create the most innovative cybersecurity solutions. Our Check Point Research division provides cutting edge cyber threat intelligence to Check Point Software customers and the wider intelligence community. The research team collects and analyzes global cyberattack data stored on ThreatCloud to keep hackers at bay while ensuring that all Check Point products are updated with the latest protections. From the moment a security breach is initiated, ThreatCloud begins sharing data across the network, giving researchers the information they need to thoroughly analyze and report attacks. Check Point Research publications and intelligence sharing are fueling the discovery of new cyber threats and the development of the international threat intelligence community to protect them.

Why do Israeli companies dominate the cybersecurity space compared to other countries?

Israel is one of the world’s leading cybersecurity hubs due to its focus on developing cybersecurity expertise. There are various initiatives in both the private and public sectors when it comes to cybersecurity skills development. In fact, cybersecurity is being given so much priority that cybersecurity education begins in middle school in Israel.

Is there a major cybersecurity skills shortage in a country like India? What can be done to fill this skills gap?

India, like the rest of the world, faces a cybersecurity skills shortage. We have a major focus on cybersecurity skills training and certification. We also aim to make cybersecurity education accessible to all and are working with various academic and non-academic partners to accomplish this mission. We recently launched Check Point Mind, a knowledge training portal, in collaboration with over 200 of the world’s most recognized training partners. Users can register for the portal free of charge and choose from a wide range of courses and programs from over 200 partners. Payment can be made by credit card or Check Point Learning Credits.

In addition, Check Point’s Secure Academy program provides 100 universities and colleges worldwide with a comprehensive cybersecurity curriculum, and we’re building partnerships with leading institutions like New York University (NYU) to create online platforms to educate students in Include cybersecurity training. The Secure Academy program trains an average of about 100 students per year. In India we work with over 15 universities and colleges. Hundreds of students have gone through this program in India.


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Data science company RS21 aims to bring AI / ML technology into space https://ms-factory.biz/data-science-company-rs21-aims-to-bring-ai-ml-technology-into-space/ Fri, 07 Jan 2022 18:46:08 +0000 https://ms-factory.biz/data-science-company-rs21-aims-to-bring-ai-ml-technology-into-space/ Via satellite archive: visualization of artificial intelligence. RS21 is a data science company focused on the space sector to improve predictive maintenance and remote monitoring of satellite systems and networks. RS21 was recognized for its autonomous satellite and spacecraft technology solution that uses artificial intelligence and machine learning to predict errors before they occur. The […]]]>

Via satellite archive: visualization of artificial intelligence.

RS21 is a data science company focused on the space sector to improve predictive maintenance and remote monitoring of satellite systems and networks. RS21 was recognized for its autonomous satellite and spacecraft technology solution that uses artificial intelligence and machine learning to predict errors before they occur.

The company is recently the Center for the exchange and analysis of space information (Space ISAC) and last year won the 2020 AFRL Hyperspace Challenge, a business accelerator of the Air Force research laboratory.

RS21’s chief technology officer, Kameron Baumgardner, believes AI / ML technologies can make a huge difference in the satellite sector, he said Via satellite.

“AI / ML is evolving so quickly that the possibilities are numerous and growing every day,” he said. “Satellites face some of the harshest conditions of any man-made device, while also supporting the infrastructure that is fundamental to our modern lifestyles. Guidance / positioning / timing, communication, images and weather forecast are all based on complex satellite equipment that races around the earth despite radiation, rubble and hundreds of kilometers per hour. “

The company is developing the Space Prognostic AI Custodian Ecosystem (SPAICE), an autonomous solution for error detection and prediction. In 2021, AFRL RS21 awarded a Direct to Phase II Small Business Innovation Research (SBIR) contract valued at $ 750,000 to develop SPAICE. Baumgardner said the company is in discussions with many other government agencies, departments and commercial manufacturers and plans to pursue a Phase 2 SBIR extension. Baumgardner assumes that SPAICE will be ready for the commercial rollout in the next two to three years.

Baumgardner said the company is excited about the potential of integrating with operations centers from Space power, air force, and the National Awareness Bureau, and others to help analyze the data received. In the long term, however, he believes the US government will be one of RS21’s smaller customer segments for SPAICE.

The company assumes that at some point SPAICE will be sold to manufacturers and packaged on hardened modules that are in orbit on the platform itself.

“The technology will enable data-driven predictions in real time without having to wait for human interpretations, which is particularly important when satellite communication with ground stations is rare. For this application, our customers will be satellite manufacturers themselves who can market the ability as a difference in their response to state tenders, ”he said.

Baumgardner believes predictive maintenance and SPAICE as an extension can have a significant impact and open doors to new opportunities for the satellite industry.

“There are benefits in knowing when and how a platform may experience an adverse event or degradation, resulting in increased mission performance and significant financial savings. We also see that satellite technology leads to a whole range of possibilities for autonomous decision-making as soon as we can provide these models with hardened components on the platform. “

RS21 also provides data solutions for healthcare, research, and state and local governments, but space has become one of its top priorities.

“The response we received after SPAICE won the US AFRL Hyperspace Challenge Accelerator 2020 was, to be honest, overwhelming, and we look forward to continuing our work. SPAICE has a very well-defined problem that it addresses in a market where our research shows there is little commercial competition, and some of the intellectual property rights that we have sideways applied to our other markets, such as healthcare, really help us overcome some of the traditional barriers that these types of techniques face, ”said Baumgardner.

Baumgardner sees a burgeoning relationship between data science and the satellite industry.

“We are aware of some very inspiring work and cutting edge research in both academic and commercial fields, but from our previous involvement in the industry we have seen that data science and AI have not really saturated the world of problematic space. This is encouraging for companies like RS21 because there are still many low hanging fruit problems as well as the predictive maintenance problem that SPAICE addresses, which gives us real opportunities to scale and expand our impact, ”said he.


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Check the quality of your sky with Orion! | Night sky https://ms-factory.biz/check-the-quality-of-your-sky-with-orion-night-sky/ Thu, 06 Jan 2022 05:00:00 +0000 https://ms-factory.biz/check-the-quality-of-your-sky-with-orion-night-sky/ Have you ever wondered how many stars you can see at night? From a perfect location with dark skies, free from any light pollution, a person with excellent eyesight can see a few thousand stars in the sky at a time! Unfortunately, most people don’t like flawless dark skies – and knowing the brightness of […]]]>


Have you ever wondered how many stars you can see at night? From a perfect location with dark skies, free from any light pollution, a person with excellent eyesight can see a few thousand stars in the sky at a time! Unfortunately, most people don’t like flawless dark skies – and knowing the brightness of your sky will help you navigate the night sky.

The brightness of planets and stars is measured in terms of apparent brightness, or how bright they appear from Earth. Most visible stars have a magnitude 1 through 6 in magnitude, with the lower number being brighter. A star of strength one appears 100 times brighter than a star of strength six. Some stars and planets shine even brighter than the first magnitude, like the brilliant Sirius with a magnitude of -1.46 or Venus, which can shine brighter than -4! Very bright planets and stars can still be seen from bright cities with a lot of light pollution. In perfect skies, an observer can see stars as bright as 6.5, but such fantastic conditions are very rare; In much of the world, man-made light pollution drastically reduces people’s visibility at night.

Your heaven is Limit size is simply the measure of the darkest stars you can see if you look straight up. So if the darkest star that you can see from your back yard is size five, then your limit size is five. Just right? But why do you want to know your limit size? It can help you plan your observation! For example, if you have a bright sky and your limit brightness is three, watching a meteor shower or looking for darker stars and objects can be a wasted effort. But if your skies are dark and the limit is five, you should be able to see meteors and the Milky Way. Knowing this number can help you measure the light pollution in your area and see if it gets better or worse over time. And regardless of the location, be it a backyard, balcony or park with dark skies, light pollution is a problem for all stargazers!









How do you find out the limit size in your area? While you can use smartphone apps or dedicated devices like a Sky Quality Meter, you can also use your own eyes and maps with bright constellations! The Night Sky Network offers a free printable Dark Sky Wheel with the stars of Orion on one side and Scorpius on the other, here: bit.ly/darkskywheel. Each wheel contains six “wedges” that show the stars of the constellation, which are limited to one to six sizes. Find the wedge with the faintest stars you can see from your area; You now know your limit size! For maximum accuracy, use the wheel when the constellation is high in the sky well after sunset. Compare the difference between a full moon and a new moon. Before you begin, allow your eyes to get used to for twenty minutes to ensure that your night vision is optimal. A red light can help maintain your night vision while comparing stars on print.

Did you have fun? Contribute to science with monthly observation programs from the Globe at Night website (globeatnight.org) and catch up on the latest NASA science about the stars, which you can – and cannot see – at nasa.gov.

This article is distributed by the NASA Night Sky Network. The Night Sky Network program supports astronomy clubs in the United States that are dedicated to astronomy work. Visit nightsky.jpl.nasa.gov to find local clubs, events, and more!



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Anyone who needs plants simply uses solar energy https://ms-factory.biz/anyone-who-needs-plants-simply-uses-solar-energy/ Thu, 30 Dec 2021 18:40:48 +0000 https://ms-factory.biz/anyone-who-needs-plants-simply-uses-solar-energy/ The idea of ​​a man-made device that can convert solar energy into usable fuel has been exciting researchers since the 1970s. With no free lunch, it’s not that easy to create a device that mimics photosynthesis that Mother Nature perfected long ago. Yet researchers at the Department of Energy’s Lawrence Berkeley Lab in California seem […]]]>

The idea of ​​a man-made device that can convert solar energy into usable fuel has been exciting researchers since the 1970s. With no free lunch, it’s not that easy to create a device that mimics photosynthesis that Mother Nature perfected long ago. Yet researchers at the Department of Energy’s Lawrence Berkeley Lab in California seem to have solved an important part of the artificial leaf challenge.

Solar energy & the artificial leaf of the future

The concept of the artificial leaf first crossed that CleanTechnica Radar in the form of a map-sized photo-electrochemical cell from 2011. Instead of converting sunlight into electricity, the cell acts as a catalyst that uses solar energy to split water into oxygen and hydrogen.

First versions of the device required purified water. By 2013, researchers had figured out how to prevent a film of dirt from covering the solar catalyst so that it could be used in contaminated water.

Around the same time, further improvements to the concept of artificial leaves began to emerge, with a major area of ​​research being to reduce the cost of the solar catalyst. The new iterations also included an artificial leaf that uses sunlight to convert carbon dioxide into carbon monoxide, a ubiquitous chemical building block.

Until 2014, researchers at the Berkeley Lab worked on a “bionic” version of the artificial leaf concept. They focused on solar production of hydrogen based on the premise that the energy storage value of hydrogen would help create a low cost route for a commercial version of the artificial leaf.

Just a year later, researchers from Lund University announced an artificial “supersonic sheet” based on artificial molecules that can collect solar energy and act as a catalyst. Again, this version was geared towards hydrogen production, with the potential to add methane to the list.

Why bother synthetic photosynthesis when we have wind and solar power?

Now that wind and solar power are so cheap, one might wonder why researchers are still so keen on making synthetic photosynthesis possible. If hydrogen is to be produced from water, this can be done by using solar energy to operate an electrolysis system that uses electricity to push hydrogen gas out of the water.

For the answer, let’s turn to Purdue University, which published an article last June on the benefits of mimicking photosynthesis over generating electricity from wind turbines and solar panels.

“The closest process to artificial photosynthesis that humans have today is photovoltaic technology, in which a solar cell converts solar energy into electricity. This process is known to be inefficient and can only capture about 20% of the sun’s energy, ”noted Purdue. “Photosynthesis, on the other hand, is radically more efficient; it is able to store 60% of the sun’s energy as chemical energy in associated biomolecules. “

Sad but true. Researchers are constantly developing new solar cells that keep breaking records in converting solar energy. The most efficient have exceeded the 20 percent mark by a large margin, but are nowhere near the 60 percent mark.

Purdue quoted biophysicist and solar energy researcher Yulia Pushkar, who emphasized the benefit of the artificial leaves.

“There are no fundamental physical limitations with artificial photosynthesis,” she said. “It’s very easy to imagine a system that is 60% efficient because we already have a precedent in natural photosynthesis. And if we get very ambitious, we could even imagine a system with an efficiency of up to 80%. “

You can’t fool mother nature (unless you really try)

When a plant processes solar energy, it grows. Unfortunately, when scientists try the same thing with an artificial leaf, it falls apart. That just goes to show how awesome Mother Nature is.

That brings us to the latest development. Earlier this month, the Berkeley Lab discovered that a research team led by scientist Francesca Toma recently had a breakthrough. Your contribution to the field of artificial photosynthesis focuses on the issue of durability.

The weakness of a typical man-made leaf system is the result of using a crystalline form of copper called copper oxide. Copper (I) oxide is a preferred material in photoelectrochemical cells due to its high light reactivity, but it disintegrates after a few minutes when exposed to light.

So why stick with a loss proposal?

“Despite its instability, copper oxide is one of the best candidate materials for artificial photosynthesis because it is relatively affordable and has properties suitable for absorbing visible light,” explains Berkeley Lab.

With this motivation Toma and her team took a new look at the photoelectrochemical reaction. Upon closer inspection, the team found that the perpetrator may not be in the cell itself. Instead, it could be something in the water – literally the water electrolyte used in man-made leaf systems.

“We knew it was unstable – but we were surprised to learn how unstable it really is,” said Toma. “When we started this study, we wondered if the key to a better solar fuel device might not be in the material itself, but in the overall environment of the reaction, including the electrolyte.”

Solar energy & the “Z-scheme”

The team concluded that hydroxides in the water contribute to corrosion. The study also revealed a possible workaround that consists of a photoelectrochemical cell protected by a layer of silver on top and a gold / iron oxide on the bottom.

“This ‘Z-Scheme’, which is inspired by electron transfer in natural photosynthesis, was supposed to create a ‘funnel’ that sends holes of copper oxide into the gold / iron oxide sink,” explains Berkeley Lab.

Do you have it all Well! You can find all the juicy details in the study “Investigation and weakening of degradation mechanisms in Cu2O photoelectrodes for the reduction of CO2 to ethylene“In the diary Natural energy.

“The resulting photocathode shows a stable photocurrent for CO2 reduction with ~ 60% Faraday efficiency for ethylene with an equilibrium of hydrogen over hours, while bare Cu2O is broken down within minutes,” conclude Toma and her team.

Attention Fossil Fuels – The Liquid Sunlight Alliance is here for you

If you got the thing about making ethylene, that’s another potential advantage over electrolysis systems. Here, let’s have our friends over BMC biology explain it:

“The simple hydrocarbon ethylene (C2H4) is a tiny gaseous molecule of great importance. Ethylene is not only the most commonly produced organic compound in the world (used in the manufacture of numerous products such as rubber, plastics, paints, detergents and toys), but is also an important hormone in plant biology. “

The ability to increase non-fossil production of ethylene could be a determining factor. Fossil industry stakeholders have relied on hydrogen, ethylene, and other petrochemicals to stay afloat as the global economy drifts away from fossil fuels, but now it looks like these routes could also be blocked by solar energy.

With this in mind, let’s take a quick look at the Liquid Sunshine Alliance, the umbrella organization that supports Toma’s team, among others. LiSA was founded in 2020 in the final days of the Trump administration as one of two projects funded by the US Department of Energy through the Fuels from Sunlight Energy Innovation Hub, which dates back to the Obama administration.

“The Liquid Sunlight Alliance is developing the scientific principles with which permanently coupled microenvironments can be jointly designed in order to efficiently and selectively generate liquid fuels from sunlight, water, carbon dioxide and nitrogen,” explains LiSA, and that’s not all.

The mission statement of LiSA positions the solar fuels area as an area that promotes “Diversity, Equity and Inclusion, (DEI) aspects that are essential and fundamental for the expansion of knowledge in science and technology and the development of the scientific staff of the future” which is somewhat ironic considering former President Trump attempted to thwart the federal DEI programs in the final months of his lost candidacy for re-election in 2020.

The other program funded by Fuels From Sunlight in 2020 is CHASE, the Center for Hybrid Approaches in Solar Energy to Liquid Fuels. CHASE’s mission is to “develop hybrid photoelectrodes for fuel production that combine semiconductors for light absorption with molecular catalysts for conversion and fuel production”.

Regarding the role of solar energy in the rapid global decarbonization, you don’t seem to have seen anything, so hold on to your hats.

Follow me on Twitter @TinaMCasey.

Photo: “A model for solar fuel called a photo-electrochemical cell. A research team led by Francesca Toma, a research associate with the Liquid Sunlight Alliance in the Chemical Sciences Division of the Berkeley Lab, designed the model ”(Credit: Thor Swift / Berkeley Lab).

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The Great Pacific Garbage Patch is getting worse and worse. Something happened here https://ms-factory.biz/the-great-pacific-garbage-patch-is-getting-worse-and-worse-something-happened-here/ Tue, 28 Dec 2021 11:00:06 +0000 https://ms-factory.biz/the-great-pacific-garbage-patch-is-getting-worse-and-worse-something-happened-here/ Marine litter affects marine life. Ahmed Areef / EyeEm / GettyImages For decades, the Pacific Ocean has been collecting garbage that has been turned into two giant floating garbage islands. They stretch for hundreds of miles and are known as the Great Pacific Garbage Patch. The ubiquitous eddies of man-made litter are damaging marine life […]]]>

Marine litter affects marine life.

Ahmed Areef / EyeEm / GettyImages

For decades, the Pacific Ocean has been collecting garbage that has been turned into two giant floating garbage islands. They stretch for hundreds of miles and are known as the Great Pacific Garbage Patch. The ubiquitous eddies of man-made litter are damaging marine life and the environment, and can even worsen man-made climate change.

In August, environmental nonprofit Ocean Cleanup launched Jenny, their first large-scale cleaning system, which has since removed more than 63,000 pounds of trash. In October, Ocean Cleanup called this work the “beginning of the end of the Great Pacific Garbage Patch”. It is a beginning. But the lumps of man-made garbage are getting bigger and bigger. The organization returned to the garbage island this month to reinstate Jenny.

However, ocean litter is only one focus. Plastic pollution and microplastics have been shown to contribute to climate change as they can release greenhouse gases through heat. To tackle the climate crisis, we need to reduce pollution in the oceans, where 8 million tons of plastic are collected every year.

Here’s everything we know about the Pacific Ocean Garbage Island and how you can help.

ocean-cleanup-haul.png

One of the goals of Ocean Cleanup is to get rid of the Great Pacific Garbage Patch. Here is the result of a drawing this fall.

The ocean cleanup

Where is the Great Pacific Garbage Patch?

The garbage stain consists of two garbage-filled eddies in the Pacific Ocean. The two vortices of human detritus are known as the Western Garbage Patch (closer to Japan) and Eastern Garbage Patch (closer to California and Mexico).

They are also known as eddies when two ocean currents come together and create a hurricane-like current, Nancy Wallace, director of the Marine Debris Program at the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, told CNET. Materials then get caught in the eddies.

While you might think the spots are massive masses of tangled plastic, they are in fact scattered across hundreds of miles of the Pacific. You could sail through the patches without realizing that you are in them. This is because up to 70% of the trash eventually sinks to the ocean floor, Wallace said.

What kind of rubbish is in the mountains of rubbish?

Most of the litter comes from land in North America and Asia, like plastic bottles and straws that have found their way into the ocean. Litter can eventually end up in the ocean from land-based sources such as rivers, rainwater, and garbage.

However, according to the National Marine Sanctuary Foundation, 20% comes from boats or ships throwing debris into the ocean, including lost fishing gear.

How big is the garbage stain?

The Ocean Cleanup estimates that the Great Pacific Garbage Patch covers 1.6 million square kilometers, about twice the size of Texas or three times the size of France.

However, the actual size of the garbage island is unknown due to a number of factors. First of all, not all of the trash is on the water. It’s estimated to be hundreds of miles in length, Wallace said, and it’s a moving target due to waves and wind. However, it remains in a certain area due to ocean currents.


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How much rubbish is there in the trash can?

According to Wallace, an estimated 8 million tons of plastic waste were in the landfills in 2015, according to Wallace, although the exact amount that will end up in the Pacific Ocean is uncertain. According to Conservation.org, this is equivalent to the weight of around 57,000 blue whales, which also predict that by 2050 the bulk of plastic marine litter will outweigh that of their fish.

The Ocean Cleanup said it found more than 1.8 trillion plastic parts in the patch, weighing an estimated 80,000 tons.

At least 8 million tons of plastic end up in all of the oceans each year and the amount is expected to double by 2030, according to the World Wildlife Fund organization.

A western seagull wades through the waves of the Pacific Ocean at Point Reyes National Seashore.

A western seagull wades along the Pacific coast in California. Animals can mistake plastic for food in the ocean.

Stephen Shankland / CNET

How does the garbage affect marine life?

You have likely seen photos of sea turtles with fishing nets tangled around their bodies and shells. This is just one of the dire effects man-made debris has on marine life. Ocean animals can also pick up the plastic litter, which can harm them and make them feel full, Wallace said. As a result, the animals do not eat the food they need to survive. The plastic could also tear your organs apart.

Plastic can suffocate and suffocate marine animals and their habitats, and it can take hundreds of years to break down, according to the WWF.

Microplastics can also harm the oceans

Microplastics are less than 5 millimeters long and come from larger debris that break up into smaller pieces, making them much harder to filter out. These small plastics can pose a threat to aquatic animals as they can absorb the dirt.

But can eating fish that has consumed this microplastic harm humans? Ocean Cleanup says if animals eat the plastics with chemicals, there is a chance that the chemicals will eventually get to humans through the food chain.

However, according to NOAA, more studies are needed to determine the effects of microplastics.


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Does marine litter contribute to climate change?

In short, yes. Chemical components and old pollutants absorb the plastic the marine animals eat, Wallace said. Then sunlight and heat release strong greenhouse gases from the plastic. The WWF says when the planet gets hotter the plastic breaks down into methane and ethylene, which increases the rate of climate change.

Ocean plastic harms air quality, pollutes the atmosphere and contributes to global warming, according to Iberdrola, a multinational energy company.

Is something being done to clean up the litter in the sea?

Yes. Groups are working to prevent more rubbish from ending up in the garbage dumps by reducing the number of single-use items like bottles and straws. There are also people who work on or near the shore cleaning up and removing debris because it is easier to collect landfill.

Other groups are considering cleaning up open oceans to collect debris like fishing gear and other smaller floating parts, but there are some challenges since the Pacific Ocean is so big and deep.

Water bottles

Reusable bottles can prevent more plastic bottles from ending up in the sea.

Alina Bradford / CNET

What can I do to get rid of the garbage in the sea?

  • Businesses and individuals should avoid adding to the problem. For example, stop collecting trash and use reusable water bottles instead of single-use plastic bottles that can easily end up in bodies of water.
  • If you live near an ocean, volunteer to clean up the shoreline to help remove debris on the shores.
  • If you don’t live near an ocean, you can help clean up parks or neighborhoods as the trash in those areas can eventually end up in the marine environment.
  • Donate to various organizations that support waste disposal, such as the Ocean Conservancy and Oceana.
  • Shop with companies that work towards sustainability. They will usually have this information listed on their website – for example, Amazon has a sustainability page with its goals.
  • Support people at all levels of government who advocate policies to combat climate change.

For more information, read How Scientists Appreciate 85% of the world’s population are affected by climate change.



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We need a scientific analysis of satellite data on UAP https://ms-factory.biz/we-need-a-scientific-analysis-of-satellite-data-on-uap/ Mon, 27 Dec 2021 19:00:09 +0000 https://ms-factory.biz/we-need-a-scientific-analysis-of-satellite-data-on-uap/ Earlier this year, the US military and intelligence agencies released a report on unidentified aerial phenomena (UAPs, also known as UFOs). Before the report was published, former National Intelligence Director John Ratcliffe stated: “We are talking about objects seen by Navy or Air Force pilots or taken from satellite images that are frankly performing actions […]]]>

Earlier this year, the US military and intelligence agencies released a report on unidentified aerial phenomena (UAPs, also known as UFOs). Before the report was published, former National Intelligence Director John Ratcliffe stated: “We are talking about objects seen by Navy or Air Force pilots or taken from satellite images that are frankly performing actions that are difficult to explain”. , Movements that are difficult to replicate, that we don’t have the technology for. ”

The most attention-grabbing part of this statement is the reference to “satellite images”. I – and the hundreds of scientists studying UAP – have never seen any publicly published data on it. We would be very interested in analyzing data on objects that enter the Earth’s atmosphere that do not follow ballistic orbits like meteors. However, no such data are currently available for an open scientific analysis.

Of course, Ratcliffe’s quotation is an inadequate basis for substantive scientific investigation. But unclassified data gathered from non-governmental satellites could be made available for open scientific analysis.

Advances in our understanding of the associated satellite imagery may also result from the new office recently established by the National Defense Authorization Act (NDAA) for fiscal year 2022, a coordinated effort to report and respond to UAPs, and significantly improve data sharing between authorities about UAP sightings. This new office will be jointly managed by the Minister of Defense and the Director of the National Intelligence Service and will enable military and civilian personnel as well as the intelligence services to report incidents and information related to UAP.

If the new office finds that the objects in the satellite imagery are so unusual that they cannot be created by human hands and are therefore not a matter of national security, then it would make sense to subject the data to a scientific analysis. A natural or extraterrestrial origin will be of international interest and benefit all humanity and enrich our common scientific knowledge.

In the past, protocols for possible contact with extraterrestrial intelligence were mainly inspired by the ability to detect radio signals from planets around distant stars. Given that the closest star system, Alpha Centauri, is 4.4 light-years away, such signals would take a decade or more to complete a round-trip conversation. As a result, they have no ramifications for our immediate future.

But any other type of contact could have immediate effects. They are physical objects from another civilization that are already here, waiting to be noticed like a package in our mailbox. The incoming hardware does not have to be mindless, but could have artificial intelligence (AI) that searches for information about the habitable planets around the sun.

An encounter of this kind implies immediate contact with no appreciable delay in communication time. The possibility of immediate intervention changes the response protocol relative to a delayed radio signal.

There is currently no international agreement on how humanity should deal with a visitor object of extraterrestrial origin. It would be wise to formulate guidelines before they are needed. Any engagement could have an impact on the future of mankind and should not be left to the spontaneous whims of a small team of researchers.

We should weigh the risks and benefits of different engagements. The decision tree for how to proceed has branches that depend on the properties and behavior of the objects. Because it is difficult to predict these unknowns in advance, decisions must be made in real time.

Deciphering the intent of some intelligent extraterrestrial equipment can be similar to the challenge of cracking the code on an encryption device. We may have to rely on our AI systems to find out the intent of extraterrestrial AI systems.

Correct interpretation of immediate contact with extraterrestrial technologies could bring about the most significant advance in understanding the reality around us in all of human history.

Our historical emigration from Africa began about a hundred thousand years ago, but future emigration from Earth could be triggered by a dialogue with a remote messenger who is unlike anything we have seen before.

ONEvi L.öB. is head of the Galileo project, founding director of the Black Hole Initiative at Harvard University, director of the Institute for Theory and Computation at the Harvard-Smithsonian Center for Astrophysics and former chairman of the astronomy department at Harvard University (2011-2020). He is Chairman of the Advisory Board for the Breakthrough Starshot Project and a past member of the Presidential Science and Technology Advisory Board and former Chairman of the Board of Directors for Physics and Astronomy of the National Academies. He is bestselling author of “Extraterrestrial: The First Sign of Intelligent Life Beyond Earth” and co-author of the textbook “Life in the Cosmos”, both published in 2021.


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Unsolved storylines in Star Trek: The Next Generation https://ms-factory.biz/unsolved-storylines-in-star-trek-the-next-generation/ Thu, 23 Dec 2021 17:08:00 +0000 https://ms-factory.biz/unsolved-storylines-in-star-trek-the-next-generation/ Right at the start of the series, Wesley Crusher was declared a child prodigy with a special destiny. That’s partly why many fans over the years disliked the character who often came across as a know-it-all and living MacGuffin. Nevertheless, he had a very clear path ahead of him, the traveler claimed, at least on […]]]>

Right at the start of the series, Wesley Crusher was declared a child prodigy with a special destiny. That’s partly why many fans over the years disliked the character who often came across as a know-it-all and living MacGuffin. Nevertheless, he had a very clear path ahead of him, the traveler claimed, at least on his very first appearance in “Where Nobody Has Goed Before”. In one of the first ongoing character stories, the Traveler urges Picard to nurture the boy and develop his talents. Picard does so despite his dislike of children, and Wesley, the child prodigy, goes from being a naive, big-eyed kid to being a brilliant, talented Starfleet officer.

But on his return in Season 7 “Journey’s End” Wesley comes back from Starfleet Academy with a sudden chip on his shoulder and is ready to leave Starfleet entirely. After another visit from the traveler, we learn that this is not his path, and in the end Wesley transcends his physical existence and embarks on a metaphysical journey with the alien visitor. Normally we think this resolution is sufficient, but in the fourth “TNG” film “Star Trek: Nemesis” we see Wesley again, and he is shown again in Starfleet with little explanation. What happened to his adventures with the traveler, and what was his fate that had been spoken of so many years before? He apparently gave up his godlike power and returned to serve aboard a spaceship despite his previous claims that it was not the way to go and the audience will never know why.


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Xbox Series X-Lager – live: Asda, Argos, Currys, Game and other Restock news today https://ms-factory.biz/xbox-series-x-lager-live-asda-argos-currys-game-and-other-restock-news-today/ Tue, 21 Dec 2021 09:24:20 +0000 https://ms-factory.biz/xbox-series-x-lager-live-asda-argos-currys-game-and-other-restock-news-today/ ]]>


<p>In the UK, more inventory is expected earlier this week </p>
<p>“src =” https://static.independent.co.uk/2021/12/17/12/XBOX%20BLOG%201%20copy.jpg?width=982&height=726&auto=webp&quality=75 “srcset =” https: / /static.independent.co.uk/2021/12/17/12/XBOX%20BLOG%201%20copy.jpg?width=320&auto=webp&quality=75&crop=982:726,smart 320w, https: //static.independent. co.uk/2021/12/17/12/XBOX%20BLOG%201%20copy.jpg?width=640&auto=webp&quality=75&crop=982:726,smart 640w “/></amp-img><figcaption class=

More inventory is expected in the UK earlier this week

(iStock / The Independent)

Update: Xbox All Access is available at Asda. Read on for more details.

Xbox Series X is this year’s hot ticket gift. Launched in November 2020, the next-generation console is in short supply and in high demand, with what little inventory is almost sold out as soon as it appears.

Bottlenecks in the global supply chain coupled with a lack of components have slowed production of the console, leaving UK buyers wondering where to buy an Xbox before Christmas.

The cheaper and less powerful Xbox Series S is easier to find in stock, but the more advanced Xbox Series X is in higher demand and sold out within minutes of launch. Knowing when and where your new console will be replenished next is key to snapping one up before they’re all used up.

That’s why we started our Xbox stock alerts live blog. If you are wondering where to buy an Xbox Series X in the UK before Christmas today, please do not hesitate to contact us. Below we will keep you informed of the latest live replenishment updates as they occur, as well as all the news on predicted replenishment dates, new games and accessories, and milestone events.

Continue reading:

Check inventory from Xbox Series X dealers in the UK below:

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Do you need a new Xbox controller? Grab this here

Razer Kaira for Xbox: Was € 149.99, now € 111.13, Amazon.de

(Razor)

This was recognized as the best wireless gaming headset for Xbox in our guide to the best gaming headsets. It’s a “crisp little headset that is comfortable to wear, decent sound, and a crisp, crisp microphone that belies its relatively low price,” our author noted. It’s currently reduced by 25 percent on Amazon too, so it’s a breeze.

Eva Waite-TaylorDecember 21, 2021 9:20 am

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Differences between Xbox Series X and Series S

(Xbox)

There are a total of two next-gen Xboxes, the less powerful Xbox Series S and the more advanced Xbox Series X.

Both run the same next-gen games (as well as older Xbox games due to backward compatibility), but the cheaper Xbox Series S has less processing power under the hood. This means graphics won’t look as detailed and performance may be a little slower.

Because of this, the Xbox Series X is considered the “real” next-generation console here – but both consoles are great slot machines. The Xbox Series S has another great advantage that it is much easier to find in stock than the Xbox Series X.

The Xbox Series S is £ 249 (Argos.co.uk) which looks positive compared to the Xbox Series X at £ 449.

Eva Waite-TaylorDecember 21, 2021 9:05 am

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Good morning Xbox hunter, we’re in stock at Asda

Welcome back for another day to track down the Xbox Series X. And on this fine Tuesday morning, we have good news for you that the next generation console is still in stock at Asda via Xbox All Access.

How does it work? Pay nothing upfront and get an Xbox Series X console and Game Pass Ultimate subscription for £ 28.99 a month. After the 24-month term has expired, you will keep the console.

If you order at noon today, you will receive it on Christmas Eve. Go Go Go

Eva Waite-TaylorDecember 21, 2021 8:49 am

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What is Xbox All Access?

(Microsoft)

There are more than one ways to buy an Xbox Series X console. You can either pay £ 449 in full as usual or join the Xbox All Access program.

The Xbox All Access program is available from Game, Smyths, and Asda and allows you to spread the cost of the Xbox Series X or Series S over two years. Pay nothing upfront and get an Xbox Series X console and Game Pass Ultimate subscription for £ 28.99 a month. After the 24 months, you will keep the console.

Steve HogartyDecember 20, 2021 4:16 pm

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Can you install a VPN on an Xbox?

When you stream Netflix on your Xbox, a virtual private network allows you to spoof your location and access movies and TV shows that are normally not available in your country.

You can’t install a VPN directly on an Xbox Series X, but you can install one on your laptop and route your console’s internet connection through it. You can also install some VPNs on routers to cover all of your devices at once.

The best VPN for every device type

The best VPN services on your iPhone, Firestick, Android and more in the UK for Netflix and streaming including ProtonVPN, ExpressVPN, NordVPN and CyberGhost

Steve HogartyDecember 20, 2021 3:30 p.m.

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Where is the Xbox Series S in stock?

(Microsoft)

While the fans are screaming to get their hands on the most of it progressive As a member of the Xbox family, the demand for the inferior Xbox S series is much lower and so the console can be found in stock practically everywhere.

The Xbox Series S is a brilliant gaming machine, however, and a viable alternative to the more expensive Xbox Series X. The console is backward compatible and runs the same next-gen Xbox games, but with some of the fancier graphics options. It doesn’t have a disc drive so you can only play downloaded games. The hard drive is also half the size.

There is now an official Xbox Series S + Fourteen days + Missile league Bundle on the shelves too, costs £ 24. You can find it at Very, Game, Amazon, and more.

Steve HogartyDecember 20, 2021 2:32 p.m.

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Even Microsoft doesn’t find the Xbox in stock

You’d think Microsoft would be able to source enough Xbox Series X consoles to host the first Halo infinite Championship, but as Eurogamer reports, even the console manufacturer does not find the Xbox in stock.

Instead, Microsoft had to use Xbox Series X development kits – non-retail versions of the console that software developers use to create and test their games – to make sure every gamer has a console to compete with.

The problem, as always, is the bottleneck in the supply chain caused by the brief standstill of the entire global shipping infrastructure earlier this year.

Steve HogartyDecember 20, 2021 1:28 PM

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Register with the Indy

Did we just help you get an Xbox? Would you like even more shopping insights? Sign up for the free IndyBest newsletter, which is where you can access the best deals and summaries of the week’s must-have products selected by IndyBest experts.

The handy bulletin that lands in your inbox every Friday morning features articles from our time-tested reviews from professionals in the field – so you can make the most informed choices with your hard-earned cash.

Steve HogartyDecember 20, 2021 12:28 PM

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Looking for a PS5 for Christmas?

Well, look how the turns fared.

While we were swimming in Xboxes this morning, they don’t have two consoles to rub against each other on the PS5 stock tracking live blog. There’s a complete lack of PlayStations.

If you’re looking to locate Sony’s next generation console in time for Christmas, this is where you can find the latest tips on where it might appear next.

Steve HogartyDecember 20, 2021 11:34 am

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Tips on buying the Xbox on Amazon

Having trouble adding the Xbox Series X to your Amazon cart? First try adding the console to your wish list, then go to your wish list and click the link from there.

Steve HogartyDecember 20, 2021 11:16 am

IndyBest product reviews are unbiased, independent advice that you can trust. In some cases we generate income from clicking the links and buying the products, but we never allow this to skew our reporting. The ratings are compiled through a mix of expert opinion and real testing.

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How do carbonized compressed powder blocks clean water? https://ms-factory.biz/how-do-carbonized-compressed-powder-blocks-clean-water/ Thu, 16 Dec 2021 15:04:00 +0000 https://ms-factory.biz/how-do-carbonized-compressed-powder-blocks-clean-water/ AZoM talks to Professor Andrea Fratalocchi from KAUST about his research on a previously unknown aspect of coal that could pave the way to a new, environmentally friendly, solar-powered carbon cycle. Fratalocchi explored how compressed coal dust blocks can be used as the basis for solar-powered off-grid water purification. Your device is capable of providing […]]]>

AZoM talks to Professor Andrea Fratalocchi from KAUST about his research on a previously unknown aspect of coal that could pave the way to a new, environmentally friendly, solar-powered carbon cycle. Fratalocchi explored how compressed coal dust blocks can be used as the basis for solar-powered off-grid water purification.

Your device is capable of providing fresh water to 1.6 billion people around the world facing economic water scarcity. What inspired your research to develop such a technology?

My research group is interested in exploring new forms of clean energy generation, including traditional solar powered systems (photovoltaics, hydrogen generation, and carbon negative technologies) and more recent areas such as solar desalination. In the latter, a few years ago we developed a plasmonic system that broke all records in efficiency that existed at the time, and my group was looking for new materials to advance this work.

I read the initiative on circular carbon emissions, which was strongly supported by many countries, and began to link the concept of coal to desalination. Then we started discussions with our partners in this research (PERA Complexity and the University of Zurich) and finally developed this system.

Although renewable energies cost less and less, countries are continuing to expand their coal-fired power plants. How does your research aim to address this problem and how does it help reduce fossil fuel burning – the number one cause of man-made increases in CO.?2 in the atmosphere?

Our research opens up a different economy for coal that can counter climate change because it is environmentally friendly and protects the creation of jobs in the fossil fuel value chain.

The latest IRENA report on the LCOE from renewable sources says that electricity generation from coal has reached a plateau for almost a decade and that new coal-fired power plants have been operating with fewer hours since 2014, with ever-decreasing capacity.

In order to contain climate change, we have to take social sustainability factors into account. If we can find a way to create a new economy with clean coal and create jobs along the fossil line, we could find common ground that could finally help make change happen. It could enable us to redirect coal resources into clean economies.

For every GW of coal electricity that could be phased out by channeling coal resources into improved water management, more than 1000 tons of CO could be generated. removed2 every hour from the environment. It could help promote solutions for fossil products that could achieve the sustainable development goals of clean water, sanitation and climate protection.

Image Source: Little Smile / Shutterstock.com

Could you provide an overview of how your team used carbonized compressed charcoal and cotton fiber to achieve this? Solar powered, off-grid water treatment?

How do carbonized compressed powder blocks clean water?

Image source: Mazzone, V., et al. (2021) Clean carbon cycle through powerful and inexpensive solar-powered freshwater production. Advanced sustainable systems. doi.org/10.1002/adsu.202100217.

The above figure illustrates the process quite well. Starting with coal (a), you create a powder (b) and then optimize the structure through mechanical compression to create a volumetric three-dimensional absorber (c). Then drill holes (d) and add cotton fibers as a secondary capillary for efficient water extraction.

The final structure looks like the one depicted in (d). This system is two to three times more efficient in terms of Kg of water created per hour and per sun and US dollar spent on raw materials than any other system currently available.

According to your research, this application has a value that is two to three times higher than any other solar desalination device proposed to date. What are the other benefits of this technology?

Aside from the previously mentioned benefits, this technology also addresses social sustainability factors, i.e.; it uses coal in non-traditional ways to create jobs along the fossil line while maintaining climate responsibility, enabling clean technologies.

The manufacture of current solar materials is expensive and hinders industrial applications. How does your nature-based solution address the issues associated with cost while maintaining efficient performances?

Coal is still very abundant in nature. Currently, it is among the cheapest material for energy applications. Traditionally, however, coal has always been seen as an energy source and was mainly employed in that sense. People often get so used to the specific ways they use an object that they become obsessed with certain ways objects are used that it is difficult for them to explore alternative paths.

Such ‘functional fixation’ inhibits thinking that requires non-traditional ways of using objects, thus hindering potential alternative pathways for tackling challenging problems.

My group and I, on the contrary, leverage complexity theories. These harness the creativity that arises from divergent thinking, which is open and involves a wide variety of potential solutions. To tackle a complicated problem, such as the detrimental effects of fossil fuels on the climate, perhaps we should ask ourselves if we can use coal in a non-traditional context? 

How does your novel method improve on current water desalination processes to help address the pressing crisis of water scarcity?

This system allows a desalination rate per raw material cost evaluated at 1.39 kg/h/USD at one sun intensity. Many countries affected by water scarcity, including large coal producers such as India and China, have a large availability of sun resources.

With the system proposed in this work, a small-scale implementation can serve a family of four people, producing freshwater at the cost of around 0.002 $ per liter. This figure is already competitive with the average cost of water from reverse osmosis, evaluated at 0.0015 $ per liter, without considering the cost of large-scale facility realization.

The simplicity of the proposed system allows practical implementation almost everywhere and at minimal costs, especially in areas heavily affected by water shortage, which are usually poor, rural or isolated.

Aside from fulfilling drinking, cooking and agricultural needs, what other challenges could this energy-efficient water desalination method provide a solution for?

Aside from satisfying drinking, cooking and agricultural needs, this technology also arguably provides people access to sanitation – an ideal that necessitates fresh, clean water.

Did you come across any challenges during your research, and if so, how did you resolve them?

This research collaborates with PERA Complexity (an R&D startup in Nederland) and the University of Zurich. We addressed all challenges by working in a team and leveraging ideas from each of us constructively.

A primary challenge at the beginning was the optimization of the coal matrix to enable optimized performances. The solution to this problem required complex modeling, experimental analysis and simulations from each of us. We developed innovative algorithms for image analysis and pattern recognition that enabled the automated data analysis to be complied with in a sufficiently short amount of time.

The interest in environmentally-friendly and renewable technologies is on the rise. What does the future of renewable energy look like to you?

For me, the future of renewable energies depends heavily on hydrogen. With this in mind, my group and I are doing intensive research. Hydrogen is an ideal clean energy carrier: it can be transported anywhere with practically no loss of energy and used as required. It produces energy with extremely high efficiency and has a clean combustion that produces water and nothing else. It could eventually enable a completely clean energy cycle with no harmful by-products.

About Professor Andrea Fratalocchi

Andrea Fratalocchi is Associate Professor (since July 2016) in the Computer, Electrical and Mathematical Sciences and Engineering department at KAUST University. He joined KAUST in January 2011 as an assistant professor. Before joining KAUST, Andrea Fratalocchi was a Research Fellow at Sapienza University of Rome for a KAUST Fellowship Award.

From 2007 to 2009 Andrea Fratalocchi worked as a postdoc at the University of Sapienza as part of a “Young Investigator” award from the “Enrico Fermi” research center. In 2012 he was appointed editor of the Nature Scientific Report. In 2017 he won the Middle East GCC Enterprise Award for best electrical engineer of the year. In 2019 he was elected a Fellow of the Institute of Physics (IOP), Senior Member of the IEEE and Fellow of the Optical Society of America (OSA):

For groundbreaking innovations in the use of complex optical systems and the development of creative technologies in the areas of clean energy harvesting, bio-imaging and advanced optical materials

As of March 2019, Andrea Fratalocchi has written more than 170 articles and five patents.

Disclaimer: The views expressed here are those of the respondents and do not necessarily reflect the views of AZoM.com Limited (T / A) AZoNetwork, the owner and operator of this website. This disclaimer is part of the terms of use for this website.


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